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台式机DIY:机械硬盘

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结论

机械硬盘硬件部分(Computer-> Hard Drives-> Desktop Internal Hard Drives)

1.Recording Technology 买CMR磁记录格式的硬盘

2.买支持SATA3.0协议的硬盘

3.硬盘尺寸:3.5英寸台式机所用  2.5英寸为笔记本电脑所用

4.Disk Speed (RPM)7200转

机械硬盘软件部分

3.格式化时选4K对齐

4.用Intel傲腾作加速缓存

or

5.用内存做加速缓存

 

Desktop Internal Hard Drives

Interface:

SATA3.0<--6Gbps(约600MB/S)-->机械硬盘本身(约80MB/S-约120MB/S)

SATA3.0协议的带宽限制是6Gbps(约600MB/S),瓶颈在硬盘本身的读写速度。

RPM: 7200

 

Cache:

 

1.买CMR磁记录格式的硬盘

1.1了解CMR磁记录格式的硬盘

CMR指传统磁记录;
SMR指叠瓦式磁记录。

首先是CMR,它代表传统的磁记录。自2000年代中期以来,这一直是硬盘数据存储背后的标准技术。数据被写入并排的、不重叠的磁道上,并且在一个磁道上的写入操作不会影响其相邻磁道。

PMR, or Perpendicular Magnetic Recording, is a method in which magnetization takes place horizontally and vertically on platters. PMR is the successor to Longitudinal Magnetic Recording (LMR) and achieves a data density three times higher than its predecessor LMR – the read / write head has been optimized for this and the vertical positioning also contributes to this. This procedure was developed in order to be able to provide more than 750 GB with the common 3.5 inch hard drives. With PMR it is possible to write directly to the final storage location of the data on the hard disk without the data first having to be rewritten on the hard disk.

较新的竞争者是SMR,即瓦式磁记录。它之所以被称为瓦片,是因为数据轨迹可以像屋顶瓦片一样可视化;它们部分相互重叠。由于这种重叠,产生的磁道更薄,从而允许更多的磁道适合给定的区域,并实现更好的总体数据密度。WD Red是设备管理的SMR驱动器,在操作系统中显示为普通硬盘驱动器。

当需要将数据写入磁盘时,SMR磁道的重叠排列会使驱动器操作变得复杂。在SMR驱动器上写入数据时,重叠磁道上的数据也会受到写入过程的影响。这会强制在该过程中重写重叠磁道上的数据,这需要额外的时间来执行。

作为对此损失的缓解,可以将写入缓存到使用CMR技术运行的驱动器的某个段,并且在空闲时间内,驱动器会将这些写入假脱机到SMR区域.

SMR, the Shingled Magnetic Recording, writes data overlapping, because it is based on the concept that the write head is larger and less filigree than the read head. Therefore, the write head writes very close to the previous web, so that it remains readable. However, the data of the following lane are overwritten, which means that the next lane may have to be written again after a successful recording process. If things don’t go optimally, this “rewriting” has to continue. This may slow down the writing process drastically. The advantage of this technology, however, is that the storage density is increased compared to PMR.

In addition to the standard controller cache, SMR hard disks also have an on-disk cache in the outer tracks. This is where PMR technology comes into play. After the recording, the data is transferred from the controller to the SMR area as soon as possible. On the one hand, this process is more space-saving in the end, but it also shows the big difference to CMR technology: If the faster on-disk cache is filled before the controller can transfer the data to the SMR area, then the cache must first emptied or rewritten before new data can be saved again. For this reason, with large files it can happen that the transfer rate drops after a certain amount of data because the cache is full and must first be cleared again.

我们现在使用的HDD(机械硬盘)源于60多年前的IBM温氏硬盘,记录数据的是硬盘中的磁盘。大家应该经常听到CMR(传统磁记录)、PMR(垂直磁记录)与SMR(叠瓦磁记录)这三个名词,说的就是磁记录技术的类型。

LMR的全称是Longitudinal magnetic recording,水平磁记录
PMR的全称是Perpendicular Magnetic Recording,垂直磁记录
电脑硬盘在早期都是LMR的磁记录方式,但是这种水平磁记录方式导致硬盘的容量是个瓶颈,无法突破,所以才有后来产生的PMR垂直磁记录.

PMR出现后,硬盘的容量出现了突破,PMR替代了LMR成为主流。
PMR(垂直磁记录)包括SMR(叠瓦式垂直磁记录)和CMR(传统垂直磁记录)。

随着技术的发展,现在PMR的磁记录方式里,又细分出了两种形式:CMR和SMR (这两者是相互的一对概念)
CMR称为传统磁记录方式,这种方式保留了最早PMR替代LMR时的传统技术,即:磁道间留有保护间距,数据不会被重复叠写。

(按照这个说法,,我朋友问我买的是PMR还是SMR硬盘,其实问题的本质是在问,买的是CMR还是SMR技术硬盘)
SMR称为叠瓦式磁记录方式

 

When does SMR make sense, when does CMR?

SMR hard disks are a good choice if they are primarily used as pure data storage or if a large hard disk is to be used for a PC on which data is stored. They offer more storage capacity and are more energy efficient than CMR, which makes them ideal for archiving tasks. Basically, SMR hard disks are not particularly well suited if the hard disk is to be constantly and permanently doing write operations, as this can lead to a cache overflow. In this case, a hard disk with a CMR recording method should definitely be used.
CMR hard disks are a good choice when data is to be stored at high transfer rates or particularly large amounts of data. This includes a large number of activities from music streaming and image processing to use for NAS servers.

 

只能选CMR磁记录格式的硬盘

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzAxNjM0OTE1NA==&mid=2650970265&idx=1&sn=f3341238ce7487d1817fbd36d83cf602&chksm=80001a14b777930208f02ffc4670761217c073f00446b4196150e8c635e6fea9c73d7a225d97&mpshare=1&scene=23&srcid=&sharer_sharetime=1591958454058&sharer_shareid=d669694126583977a4f4b1c490d1bdb5#rd

1.2 哪些硬盘为CMR磁记录格式

希捷(Seagate)

 

酷鱼除了Pro系列只有拿来当仓库盘,酷狼可以随便买

List Of seagate CMR And SMR Hard Drives (HDD)

 

>西数<

4T蓝盘的性价比最高没有之一,红盘丧心病狂。

List Of WD CMR And SMR Hard Drives (HDD)

List Of WD Blue HDD CMR And SMR Hard Drives (HDD)

 

 

西部数据蓝盘crm硬盘型号列表

 
 WD RedWD Red ProWD BlueWD BlackWD Purple
3.5″1TB or belowCMRCMRCMRCMRCMR
2TB – 6TBSMRCMRSMR / CMRCMRCMR
8TB and aboveCMRCMRCMR
2.5″500GB or belowCMRSMR / CMR
1TBCMRSMRSMR
2TBSMR

 

WD Blue  Recording Technology
CMR: WD5000AZLX, WD5000AZRZ, WD10EZEX, WD10EZRZ, WD20EZRZ, WD30EZRZ, WD40EZRZ
SMR: WD20EZAZ, WD20EZBX, WD30EZAZ, WD40EZAZ, WD60EZAZ

come from:https://shop.westerndigital.com/products/internal-drives/wd-blue-desktop-sata-hdd#WD5000AZRZ

WD Blue  WD10EZEX (CMR) 1T - 7200 RPM https://item.jd.com/675971.html

WD Blue  WD30EZRZ (CMR) 3T - 7200 RPM                                                                     https://www.newegg.com/blue-wd30ezrz-3tb/p/N82E16822235012?Description=WD30EZRZ&cm_re=WD30EZRZ-_-22-235-012-_-Product&quicklink=true

https://blog.westerndigital.com/wd-red-nas-drives/

https://www.westerndigital.com/products/internal-drives/wd-blue-hdd

https://www.westerndigital.com/products/internal-drives/wd-red-hdd#specifications

https://www.westerndigital.com/products/internal-drives/wd-black-hdd#specifications

https://www.westerndigital.com/zh-cn/products/data-center-drives#hard-disk-hdd

 

>东芝<

 

记录技术
CMR(对应型号:HDWD130、HDWD120、HDWD110、HDWD105)
SMR(对应型号:HDWD260、HDWD240、HDWD220)

转速
7,200RPM(对应型号:HDWD130、HDWD120、HDWD110、HDWD105)
5,400RPM(对应型号:HDWD260、HDWD240、HDWD220)

come from:https://toshiba-semicon-storage.com/cn/canvio/product/internal/p300.html

东芝机械硬盘的产品线分类

P300(家用消费级
X300(专业级)
S300(监控级)
S300 Pro(监控级)
N300(NAS)
MG(企业级)

内置机械式硬盘

https://toshiba-semicon-storage.com/cn/canvio/product/index.html#filter=.internal

关于东芝消费级存储产品中采用SMR技术的硬盘型号

https://toshiba-semicon-storage.com/cn/canvio/news/internal-20200428.html

P300/DT02/DT02-V台式机和监控硬盘系列硬盘,是针对包括一体机,台式机和监控等应用场景。
至目前为止,以下型号硬盘采用了SMR技术:
• P300 6TB
• P300 4TB
• DT02 6TB
• DT02 4TB
• DT02-V 6TB
• DT02-V 4TB

L200和MQ04台式机硬盘系列是针对包括笔记本电脑,游戏机以及外置存储设备等应用场景。
以下型号硬盘也采用了SMR技术:
• L200 2TB
• L200 1TB
• MQ04 2TB
• MQ04 1TB

N300

128MB(对应型号:HDWQ140、HDWN160、HDWN180)
256MB(对应型号:HDWG11A、HDWG21C)
512MB(对应型号:HDWG31G)
全是cmr

detail:https://toshiba-semicon-storage.com/cn/canvio/product/internal/n300.html

 

 

目前市面上销售的2TB/4TB红盘已经全面转为叠瓦盘,你可以根据型号/缓存大小进行辨别,倒数第二位是字母A的或者非超大容量盘(8TB及以上)缓存达到128MB或256MB的,一般就是叠瓦盘。

目前我们建议购买容量为2TB容量的家用朋友选择东芝P300,东芝P300不仅转速快,而且全部都是垂直记录技术。什么红盘更稳定,紫盘只适合做监控简直就是瞎扯淡,三者都是一条产品线上出来的一模一样的东西,就是刷入的型号、固件存在细微差异,稳定性都是一样的。区分颜色、固件不过是营销手段罢了。黑盘贵很多也有道理,毕竟是企业级产品线的东西,不过它的价格和金盘已经没什么区别了。8TB以上型号可以考虑看希捷的“银河”系列企业盘,“银河”的性价比超高,虽然1TB卖789,2TB卖999,但10TB版本只要2099。新出的银河企业盘已经换成了SAS接口,不能用在家用台式机上了,要买就买老款。

3.格式化时选4K对齐

通过实际例子分析4种硬盘/SSD的掉速现象,其中4K没有对齐问题(格式化时虚选4K),对于机械硬盘来说,如果长久保持这种状态,返修率大幅攀升,用户的硬盘将面临送修的危险。无论机械硬盘或者SSD,这些问题可由用户发挥主观能动性解决

 

4.用Intel傲腾作加速缓存

raid 0.读取某个扇区时顺便读取临近扇区数据。

 

5.用内存做缓存

内存加速硬盘的原理大致是利用内存极快的读写速度将数据暂存于用来当做一级缓存的内存中从而达到加速的效果,现在网上有挺多这样的软件例如primocache和ramdisk。

内存加速机械硬盘确实有用但是效果并不会天差地别,因为一些原因或者预算不足的朋友可以选择这样的方法,但是这样的方法有一致命的缺点就是在电脑突然断电或者蓝屏的情况下,储存在内存缓存中的数据没有及时写入硬盘就会导致丢数据,但是对于笔记本之类有电池的倒没什么,但是蓝屏可是众生平等(我就蓝了几次  ),而且在缓存不够或者内存溢出的情况下可能会导致蓝屏,我就经历了几次虽然不知道是不是这个原因,反正我把系统盘分配的内存调高就没事了

装win10企业版开启uwf即可,同时能保护c盘

 

如何查看系统中硬盘和物理硬盘的对应关系

通过查看硬盘型号